Working Papers

Not as I Do: Hypocrisy Aversion and Optimal Punishment of Common Offenses
(with Greg DeAngelo and Bryan McCannon)

The Minimum Wage, EITC, and Criminal Recidivism
(with Amanda Agan)

Peer-Reviewed Articles

[23] To Serve and Collect: The Fiscal and Racial Determinants of Law Enforcement
Journal of Legal Studies, Forthcoming (with Thomas Stratmann and Alex Tabarrok)

[22] Embezzlement, Whistleblowing, and Organizational Structure
Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2018 (with Siyu Wang)

[21] Effects of the Affordable Care Act on Payer-Mix and Utilization in Maryland Emergency Departments
Annals of Emergency Medicine, 2017 (with Eili Klein, Scott Levin, Tim Xu, Matthew Toerper, Gai Cole, and Gabor Kelen)

[20] Identifying the Relationship between Length of Hospital Stay and the Probability of Readmission
Applied Economics Letters, 2018 (with Eili Y. Klein)

[19] The Evolution of Power and the Divergence of Cooperative Norms
Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2016  (with Paul Smaldino) 

[18] Education, Intelligence, and Attitude Extremity
Public Opinion Quarterly, 2015 (with Stephen Miller)

[17] Increasing Returns to Scale, Price Dispersion, and the Distribution of Returns to Innovation
Macroeconomic Dynamics, 2015 (with David Levy)

[16] Influence of provider and urgent care density across different socioeconomic strata on outpatient antibiotic prescribing in the USA
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2015 (with E. Klein, M. Orlando, E. Hatna, N. Barykov, and R. Laxminarayan)

[15] Free Riding with Other People’s Money: Contributions to Public Goods by Trustees
Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 2014 (with Wafa Orman and Sandra Peart)

[14] Unemployment, Politics, and the Enforcement of Immigration Law
Public Choice, 2014 (with Thomas Stratmann)

[13] The Determinants of Federal and State Enforcement of Workplace Safety Regulations: OSHA Inspections 1993-2010
Journal of Regulatory Economics, 2014 (lead article, with Juergen Jung)

[12] Endogenous Group Formation through Unproductive Costs
Review of Economic Studies, 2013, (lead article, with Jason Aimone, Laurence Iannaccone, and Jared Rubin)

[11] An Agent-Based Model of Centralized Institutions, Social Network Technology, and Revolution
PLoS One, 2013 (with Jared Rubin)

[10] Political Costs and Fiscal Benefits: The Political Economy of Residential Property Value Assessment under Proposition 2 1/2
Economics Letters, 2013 (lead article, with Shane Sanders)

[9] Emergent Extremism in a Multi-Agent Model of Religious Clubs
Economic Inquiry, 2012

[8] More Tickets, Fewer Accidents: How Cash-Strapped Towns make for Safer Roads
Journal of Law and Economics, 2011 (with Thomas Stratmann) 

[7] Religion, Clubs, and Emergent Social Divides
Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2011

[6] A Theory of Liberal Churches
Mathematical Social Sciences, 2011

[5] Innovation, Price Dispersion, and Emergent Increasing Returns to Scale
Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 2010 (with David M. Levy)

[4] Determinants of Traffic Citations: Political Economy at Any Speed 
American Economic Review, 2009 (with Thomas Stratmann)

[3] From Scholarly Idea to Budgetary Institution: The Emergence of Cost-Benefit Analysis 
Constitutional Political Economy, 2009 (with Richard E. Wagner)

[2] Accidental Atheists: An Agent-based Model of Religious Regionalism 
Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 2007 (lead article, with Laurence R. Iannaccone)

[1] An Agent-Based Model of Mortality Shocks, Intergenerational Effects, and Urban Crime
Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 2006

Policy Proposals

A Proposal to End Regressive Taxation Through Law Enforcement
POLICY PROPOSAL 2019-06 The Hamilton Project, The Brookings Institute, 2019

Book Chapters

“When Average is Irrelevant: Computational Modeling of Religious Groups” Book Chapter in Advances in the Economics of Religion edited by Sriya Iyer, Jared Rubin and Jean-Paul Carvalho, Palgrave 2019

The Need for More Integrated Epidemic Modeling with Emphasis on Antibiotic Resistance (E. Klein, J. Chelen, M.D. Makowsky, P. Smaldino), Book Chapter in Mathematical and Computational Modeling: With Applications in Natural and Social Sciences, Engineering, and the Arts, pp 121-134, 2015

Conference Proceedings

An Agent-based Model of Crisis-Driven Migration (with Tamas Makany, Patrick Meier, and Jorge Tavares)  Proceedings of the Santa Fe Complex Systems Summer School, Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, August 2006.  Also presented at the Political Demography Conference: Ethnic, National and Religious Dimensions (ASEN 2006), London School of Economics, London UK, September 2006

Work in Progress

Rule Enforcement and The Cost of Hypocrisy
(with Gregory DeAngelo and Bryan McCannon)

Leadership and Selective Criteria
(with Wafa Orman and Gustavo Torrens)

Compensating Differentials and Unusual Job Tasks
(with Kelsey Roberts)

Firearms under Jim Crow
(with Patrick Warren)